Corrections, expressions of concern, and retractions
Occasionally after an article is published, it may be necessary to make changes to the Version of Record (VoR).
This will be done after careful consideration by the Editor to ensure that any necessary changes are made in accordance with the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines.
Any necessary changes will be accompanied by a post-publication notice that will be permanently linked to the original article. This can take the form of a Correction notice, a Statement of Concern, a Retraction, and in rare situations, a Deletion. The purpose of this permanent and transparent change mechanism is to ensure the integrity of the scientific record.
Changes that may occur include:
Erratum refers to the correction of errors made by the publisher of the article. All changes made by the publisher will be highlighted by the author at the proofing stage and any errors will be identified by the author and corrected by the publisher before final publication.
Corrections: refer to changes to their article that authors wish to publish at any time after acceptance. Authors should contact the Editor of the journal, who will determine the impact of such changes and decide on the appropriate course of action. Elsevier will only make corrections to published articles after receiving approval and instructions from the Editor.
Retraction: describes retraction as "'removal' from the literature of a paper that is deemed sufficiently fraudulent, falsified, erroneous, plagiarised" NLM distinguishes between full retraction and partial retraction: "Sometimes only one graph or table or statement is retracted for an article. Or authors may realize that they have drawn incorrect conclusions from their research, and wish to later retract those conclusions, even though all the scientific data reported in an article are sound and valid". If a journal wants to issue a partial retraction, it is very important to clearly label the title "Partial Retraction."
Some Examples of Erratum-Corrigendum:
Springerlink: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11746-010-1570-5 [PDF]
Trends in Cognitive Sciences: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2008.03.001