Jurnal Teknologi Laboratorium 2020-08-24T05:20:08+00:00 Budi Setiawan Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Jurnal Teknologi Laboratorium</em>, with registered number ISSN 2<a href=";1369726769&amp;1&amp;&amp;" target="_blank" rel="noopener">338-5634&nbsp;(print)</a>, <a href=";1493892253&amp;1&amp;&amp;" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2580-0191&nbsp;(online)</a>&nbsp;is a scientific journal published by&nbsp;Poltekkes Kemenkes Yogyakarta. The journal <span class="st">registered in the CrossRef system </span><span class="il">with </span><strong><span class="st">Digital Object Identifier </span><span class="il">(DOI)</span> prefix <a href=";publication=Jurnal+Teknologi+Laboratorium" target="_blank" rel="noopener">10.29238.</a>&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;The aim of this journal publication is to disseminate the conceptual thoughts or ideas and research results that have been achieved in the area of medical laboratory sciences.&nbsp; Every article that goes to the editorial staff will be selected through <strong>Initial Review</strong> processes by the Editorial Board. Then, the articles will be sent to the peer reviewer and will go to the next selection by Double-Blind<strong> Preview Process</strong>. After that, the articles will be returned to the authors to revise. These processes take 6 - 7 months for maximum time. In each manuscript, the peer reviewer will be rated from the substantial and technical aspects. The final decision of articles acceptance will be made by Editors according to the Reviewer's comments. The peer reviewer that collaboration with <em>Jurnal Teknologi Laboratorium</em>&nbsp;is the experts in the medical laboratory technology&nbsp;area and issues around it.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Jurnal Teknologi Laboratorium</em> particularly focuses on the main problems in the development of the sciences of medical laboratory&nbsp;areas. It covers parasitology, bacteriology, virology, hematology, clinical chemistry, toxicology, food, and drink chemistry.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">In order to further internationalize our journal, Jurnal Teknologi Laboratorium has decided to change the Indonesian language to<strong> accept the English </strong>language only, since 2019.&nbsp;Due to this change, the article guideline of Jurnal Teknologi Laboratorium will be renewed accordingly.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Please read these guidelines carefully</strong>. &nbsp;Authors who want to submit their&nbsp;manuscript to the editorial office of&nbsp;<em>Jurnal Teknologi Laboratorium</em>&nbsp;should obey the writing guidelines. If the&nbsp;manuscript submitted is not appropriate with the guidelines or written in a different format, <strong>it will&nbsp;BE REJECTED</strong> by the editors before further reviewed. The editors will only accept the manuscripts which meet the assigned format.</p> <table style="background-color: #ccffff; margin: 20px auto 15px;" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 100%; text-align: center;"> <h2 style="margin-top: 15px; text-transform: uppercase;">Statistics</h2> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 581px;"> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><strong>Volume 8 No 1. 2019:</strong></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;">Articles Received: 15; Accepted: 7; Rejected: 7; Published: 6; Retracted: 0</p> <p><strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;Volume 7 No 2. 2018:</strong></p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;Articles Received: 11; Accepted: 6; Rejected: 5; Published: 5; Retracted: 0</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Modulation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in receptor, innate immunity and drug antiviral candidate 2020-08-24T05:20:03+00:00 Indra Lasmana Tarigan Kartika Arum <p style="text-align: justify;">The Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is a contagious acute respiratory infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 as a global pandemic in 2020.&nbsp; This disease most spreads and causes some severe cases, even death in the world. The primary purpose of this review discusses the recent article that was published regarding COVID-19 genomic modulation, the mechanism of innate immunity, and the screening of anti-viral drug candidates, for treating COVID-19 patients. This review used the latest paper regarding COVID-19 with 63 journals with high impact factors such as Nature, The Lancet, Cells, International Journal of Biological Sciences, Mol Biol Methods. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Nat. Rev. Microbiol, and other international journals indexed by Scopus, Elsevier, and Springer through in vivo and in vitro studies. The genomic of SARS-CoV-2 consist high similarly to coronaviruses family, albeit possessing a different pathway even has higher affinity, due to changing some nitrogen bases are supposed to have a significant effect on its pneumonia. Herein, we report review article an update on the recent literature of the COVID-19 modulation genome, mechanism of innate immunity, and medical literature. Moreover, we report anti-viral drugs that have been developed from synthetic drugs and medicinal compounds from plants. Several studies have been re-analyzed using in vitro, in vivo, and modelling using bioinformatics tools.</p> 2020-06-11T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Immunobioinformatics analysis and phylogenetic tree construction of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Indonesia: spike glycoprotein gene 2020-08-24T05:20:04+00:00 Arif Nur Muhammad Ansori Viol Dhea Kharisma Yulanda Antonius Martia Rani Tacharina Fedik Abdul Rantam <p style="text-align: justify;">The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has spread worldwide and as a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared it a pandemic. At present, there are no approved vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, the aim of this study was to predict epitope-based vaccines using bioinformatics approaches and phylogenetic tree construction of SARS-CoV-2 against the backdrop of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, we employed 27 isolates of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein genes retrieved from GenBank<sup>®</sup> (National Center for Biotechnology Information, USA) and the GISAID EpiCoV™ Database (Germany). We analyzed the candidate epitopes using the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource. Furthermore, we performed a protective antigen prediction with VaxiJen 2.0. Data for B-cell epitope prediction, protective antigen prediction, and the underlying phylogenetic tree of SARS-CoV-2 were obtained in this research. Therefore, these data could be used to design an epitope-based vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. However, the advanced study is recommended for confirmation (<em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em>).</p> 2020-06-11T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Herd immunity and COVID-19 in Indonesia 2020-08-24T05:20:04+00:00 Imam Agus Faizal Nur Ariska Nugrahani <p style="text-align: justify;">Herd immunity or herd effect is a phenomenon that occurs in groups of people who are resistant to disease. The purpose of conducting this research is to predict the number of cumulative cases of COVID-19 in Indonesia. Covid-19 cases in Indonesia on April 6, 2020, were 2235 cases spread in 34 Provinces. As many as 2491 cases in Indonesia, there were 192 patients recovered (including those treated, so they have natural antibodies in the end) while the total who died was 209 people. It is assumed that around 13% of the total cases have natural antibodies. This is also the case with SARS-CoV-2 and may explain why some individuals (perhaps those most recently able to recover from seasonal coronavirus infections) have asymptomatic infections. Finally, the theoretical concept of increasing herd immunity in pandemic and epidemic cases in Indonesia which aims to control COVID-19 still needs to be reviewed because it is seen from the mortality data that CFR COVID-19 is predicted to be around 8.39% of the population in Indonesia where the risk of death still available. The best alternative is to do a healthy lifestyle, social distancing, and waiting for the vaccine to be found.</p> 2020-06-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Human immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection 2020-08-24T05:20:05+00:00 Lia Yosaneri Wina Nurtias Dora Dayu Rahma Turista Eka Puspitasari <p>COVID-19 is an acute respiratory infection caused by a new type of Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which first appeared in Wuhan, China in December 2019. COVID-19 then became a pandemic in various countries in early 2020. In this article it contains review that discusses the immune response in humans due to SARS-CoV-2 infection, using the narrative literature review method, a total of 36 articles (6 from Elsevier, 24 from PMC, and 6 from Springer). It is known that the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and the manufacture of drugs and vaccines are still under investigation, but in infected patients, innate immune responses in the form of alveolar macrophages, dendritic cells, airway epithelial cells, congenital lymphocytes, and neutrophils work together in the fight against infection. Next comes the adaptive immune response in the form of antibodies (immunoglobulins) which help in fighting infections due to SARS-CoV-2. These immune responses include increasing levels of cytokines, coagulation parameters, C-reactive protein, neutrophils, and decreasing total lymphocytes. It is also known that COVID-19 patients with severe disease often experience higher total antibody, IgM responses, and IgG responses than COVID-19 patients without congenital disease. IgG antibodies are present in the serum, so the serum in COVID-19 patients who have recovered can be used for therapy in COVID-19 patients who have not healed, as long as the drug and vaccine are under investigation.</p> 2020-06-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Investigation of revers-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction values of patients with COVID-19 findings in lung computed tomography results 2020-08-24T05:20:05+00:00 Ozüdogru Osman Gunes Bolatli Fatih Tas <p style="text-align: justify;">It turned out that the cause of pneumonia cases that occurred in China was due to SARS-CoV-2. The aim is to compare chest computer tomography and Revers-Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction methods used in the diagnosis of COVID-19 disease with each other and to evaluate this disease with risk factors.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The study was carried out on 66 patients. Epidemiological history, clinical symptoms, chest CT and RT-PCR results of the cases were examined. RT-PCR results of 1, 4, and 7 days were evaluated for each case with positive chest CT results. Thirty-seven of them were found to be positive on day 1, 5 of them were found to be positive on day 4, and 2 of them were found to be positive on day seven from 52 patients whose RT-PCR results were examined. In the remaining 8 cases, no positive findings were found. The most common findings are; cough (78.8%), fever (55.8%), and shortness of breath (28.8%). It was observed that 51.9% of the cases had chronic disease history and 50% of the patients using cigarettes had bilateral lung involvement in their CT results. Seven cases received intensive care support, 3 cases were intubated. Two of the intubated cases were exitus (3,8%). The positive results of RT-PCR were found to be negative in most of the cases which have positive chest CT; suggests that chest CT is more reliable in making a diagnosis.&nbsp; Therefore, evaluating chest CT results with RT-PCR can be an appropriate alternative approach in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. However, in order to be fully diagnosed, the patient's history, chronic diseases, age, symptoms, imaging, blood, and test findings must all be considered as a whole.</p> 2020-06-11T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Diagnosis and epidemiology of Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak in Indonesia 2020-08-24T05:20:06+00:00 Sutaryono Sutaryono Sholikhah Deti Andasari Heru Subaris Kasjono <p style="text-align: justify;">COVID-19 has experienced an increase in 2,995,758 positive cases and 204,987 deaths, in distribution areas of more than 213 countries. This research using a systematic literature review, policy brief, and internet-based questionnaire with the aim of finding out the diagnosis and epidemiology of Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak in Indonesia. The cases in Indonesia have reached 9,771 and killed 784 people, possibly as many as 19 cases are asymptomatic but can be carriers of the virus. The diagnosis is carried out by rapid testing and using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Most of the patients diagnosed were aged 30-49 years (38.91%), the highest accompanying diseases were hypertension (34.85%), diabetes mellitus (25.76%), and cardiac disease (17.05%). The most signs and symptoms are that the patient has a cough, shortness of breath, and has a history of internal medicine and fever. Based on sex mostly experienced by men (58.94%) compared to women (41.06%), 60.4% of the community is still active outside the home. The Government of Indonesia is making efforts to reduce the COVID 19 outbreak by implementing a health protocol and a Large-scale Social Restrictions or “Pembatasan Sosial Berskala Besar (PSBB)” policy.</p> 2020-07-02T03:54:43+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Perspective of molecular immune response of SARS-COV-2 infection 2020-08-24T05:20:06+00:00 Martina Kurnia Rohmah Arif Rahman Nurdianto <p style="text-align: justify;">COVID-19 is a type of Pneumonia caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). When COVID-19 arise in Wuhan China and rapidly spread throughout to the World, we need to learn how pathogenesis and immune responses occur in the bodies in more detail. COVID-19 is the third Severe Respiratory Disease outbreak caused by the Coronavirus in the past two decades after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in the 2002 and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2012. The Articles from PUBMED and Research Gate were searched for studies on the immune response of COVID-19 infection by SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 increases the number of neutrophils, suppresses IFN, increases the activity of Th1/Th17, B cells, CD8+ and CD4+, and causes cytokine storms especially pro-inflammatory cytokines which can increase respiration disorders and multi-organ damage. This review tries to explain about pathogenesis and immune responses of COVID-19 to provide a reference in designing the appropriate immune intervention for treatment and therapeutic such as drug or vaccine based on the recent research progress SARS-CoV-2 and previous studies about SARS CoV and MERS CoV.</p> 2020-06-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Indirect exposure to novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2): an overview of current knowledge 2020-08-24T05:20:07+00:00 Christian Ebere Enyoh Andrew Wirnkor Verla Wang Qingyue Dipak Kumar Yadav Md Akhter Hossain Chowdhury Beniah Obinna Isiuku Tanzin Chowdhury Francis Chizoruo Ibe Evelyn Ngozi Verla Tochukwu Oluwatosin Maduka <p style="text-align: justify;">This review chronicles the indirect transmission method which seems to be overlooked by most people and makes attempts to document the various transmission ways with a hope that such information may strengthen the knowledge base of researchers towards methods of eradicating the pandemic. Current knowledge of transmission and exposure of SARS-CoV-2 has been explained. Various researchers have put forward different ways of exposure and transmission.&nbsp; Literature does not reveal whether the indirect transmission route is the dominant one. However, total lockdown could be a veritable means to reduce both direct and indirect transmission routes. In many countries where the indirect transmission has been reduced, the scourge of the virus is less. The work creates awareness on the need to watch out for those routes of transmissions that may not be popular and suggested vital knowledge gaps that need to fill.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-07-23T02:39:19+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparison of real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and IgM and IgG antibody test for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection 2020-08-24T05:20:08+00:00 Ömer ACER Osman ÖZÜDOĞRU <p style="text-align: justify;">In the present study, we compared the real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and total IgM-IgG antibody tests for diagnosis SARS-CoV-2 patients. SARS-CoV-2 patients were divided into four additional subgroups according to clinical examination, and Computed Tomography (CT) for SARS-CoV-2. Groups were included 60 mild cases, 111 moderate cases, 53 severe cases, and 105 normal cases. In a mild group, 52.5% of 60 cases were found to be male, 45.9% female, and the average age was found as 38.4 ±2.011. The positive ratio was found as 80.3% in the RT-PCR test, while 39.3% in total IgM/IgG. In a moderate group, 49.1% of 111 cases were found to be male, 50% female, and the average age was 45.05 ±1.519. The positive ratio was found as 85.7% in the RT-PCR test while 54.5% in total IgM/IgG. In a severe group, 53.7%of 53 cases were found to be male, 44.4% female, and the average age was 55.5±2.122. The positive ratio was found as 75.9% both in RT-PCR and total IgM/IgG tests. In a normal group with no involvement according to Computed Tomography (CT), 49.1%of 105 cases were found to be male, 50% female, and the average age was found as 34.8±1.391. The positive ratio was found as 95.3% in the RT-PCR test while 5.7% in total IgM/IgG. Chronic diseases were detected more in severe cases, suggesting that persons who have chronic diseases or decreased immunity, such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and lung disease, are at a higher risk for developing severe COVID-19 if they are infected with SARS-CoV-2. According to our results, we can suggest a higher detection sensibility in RT-PCR than in total IgM/IgG antibody test for mild, moderate and normal group, while the detection sensibility of IgM/IgG antibody increases in a severe group with bilateral diffuse involvement according to CT.</p> 2020-08-10T01:49:23+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## On the novel coronavirus (COVID-19): a global pandemic 2020-08-24T05:20:08+00:00 James Louis-Jean Magdonald Aime <p style="text-align: justify;">Coronaviruses (COVS) are viruses transmitted through droplets of sputum from an infected person. Analyses identify COVS as zoonotic pathogens, possibly resulting from human-animal contact at animal markets. They share overlapping genetic characteristics with the avian influenza viruses from China. COVS released from humans through droplets of sputum and may land on various surfaces, which poses exposure risks; as studies have shown the virus can exist intact for a relatively long period of time (several days). The recent highly pathogenic COVS outbreak (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan, China in 2019, include Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-COVS). This highly transmittable disease causes pneumonia and severe respiratory illnesses similar to SARS and MERS; it has a global mortality rate of about 6.13%. The virus has rapidly become a global pandemic, causing major global issues, including health, economic, and age-preference, among other issues. This text summarizes the nature of the emerging COVID-19 global pandemic while analyzing several factors concerning the etiology of the virus. This is done in an urgent effort to educate and provide relevant information about the virus.</p> 2020-08-19T02:59:59+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##